13:44Karmana: the echo of past years
The chronicles of civilizations are many examples where relatively small localities have played a special, significant role in the formation and development of a particular state. One of these is Karmana.
Today, it is already difficult to say when the first settlement was formed on the fertile land of billowing. A lot of historical facts prove of its antiquity, and one of the first mentions in the chronicle of the Chinese rulers "Bei Shi" refers to 627 AD, where it is narrated, that the rulers of Bukhara and Karmina (this is how he was called in antiquity) sent an ambassador with gifts to the Chinese emperor. He is mentioned in the writings of the chroniclers of Tamerlane. Thus, in the “Zafarnama” by Nizametdin Shami, in the context of the events of 1377, a short stay of the ruler is held in it.
The heyday of the Karmine takes place during the reign of the Sheybanids, in the 16th century. A special role in this was played by the descendants of the Sultan Shah-Budag. Founded by Muhammed Sheybanikhan (died in 1510), the specific government system, which included such localities as Gijduvan, Vabkent, Karakul, determined the special status of Karmine.
Sheibanid Janibek-Sultan was explicitly honoring the town, retaining the right to rule Karmine. When he was still alive, he bequeathed the rule of this city and his younger son Iskander khan. When Janibek-Sultan died in 1529, his successor Iskander khan ruled at that time in Miyankal (the present territory between Samarkand and Hatyrchi). Upon learning of the event, he immediately hurried to take the throne of inheritance and attach to his possessions. It was from this period that Karmine played a significant role in the political life of the state of the Sheibanids, which attracted the attention of other rulers.
In the middle of the XVI century, the unsuitability of the specific government made itself known, and between the same time, the main cities of Maverannahr were already distributed among members of the dynasty. Naturally, they all sought to self-reliance. It was a period when the state of Sheibanids, in the full sense of the word, needed a firm hand, a ruler possessing courage, and vision, who could unite the shattered Maverannahr. There were a lot of applicants wishing to take a place on the pedestal. And at this moment Abdullah khan, the heir to Iskander khan, appears on the scene of historical events. He managed to curb the indomitableness and rebelliousness of his rivals seeking power. And the events developed as follows.
The Sheibanid Abd al-Latif khan, who ruled the Samarkand at that time, and the ruler of Tashkent, Nauruz Ahmad-Khan, launched military actions in 1551 to capture Miyankal and Bukhara. The ruling Miyankal and Kermine Iskander khan, having learned about the superiority of the enemy forces, retreated his possessions and recruited (modern Afghanistan). As a result, the entire burden of defense was shouldered on the shoulders of his son Abdullah khan. Even then, Karmine was an important strategic object, and his young commander attached due importance to his defense. In advance, they took all measures to prevent the destruction of the city during enemy attacks. Abdulla khan, a prominent spiritual leader of that time, enjoying unquestioned authority among the population of Kassym-Sheikh, became a mentor and loyal assistant to all the incidents.
According to his advice, the bulk of the population was transferred to the fortress, and the troops of Abdullah khan occupied advantageous defensive positions. The battle lasted twelve days, and the enemy, after many unsuccessful attempts to take this fortress, agreed to a settlement agreement.
The talks took place with the participation of two spiritual leaders - Darvish-Sheikh Aliobodi and Kasym-Sheikh. Under the terms of the accepted treaty, Abd al-Latif khan and Nauruz Ahmad khan were to lift the siege from the city and retire to their possessions. In the Karmine, the power of Iskander khan was restored, who, in turn, appreciated the beneficence and assistance in relation to Kasym- Sheikh.
In 1556, Karmine did not fall under the influence of yet another representative of the Sheibanid dynasty Dustmuhammad khan. Iskander khan, unable to cope with the enemy, retreated to Miyankal. However, in the same year, Abdullah khan, who had already shown himself to be a worthy defender, conquered the town belonging to their family and gave it to his father, who remained there until 1561.
During all this time, despite the fact that Abdullah khan was independent in his actions, the legitimate power belonged to his father. Accordingly, Iskander khan indirectly controlled the actions of his son, who, as demanded upbringing, reported to him. Thus, the political life of the Bukhara inheritance of the Sheibanids state was controlled from Kermine.
According to the laws of that time, the right to supreme power belonged to the most senior representative of the dynasty. In the sixties of the XVI century in this state, such was Uncle Abdullah khan Pirmukhammad khan, the ruler of Balkh. Despite his high status, the power in the territory entrusted to him was not solid. Taking advantage of the absence of Pirmuhammad khan, his son Dinmukhammad khan raised a rebellion and seized Balkh.
This event was a lesson for Abdullah khan, who, in contrast to Dinmuhammad khan’s seditious actions, decided to set an example of devotion to his father. In April 1561, he declared his uncle Pirmuhammad khan deposed, and proclaimed his father Iskander khan the ruler of the state of the Sheibanids. He withdrew him from Karmine, put him on the throne of Bukhara as the supreme ruler, and began minting a coin called "Iskanderkhani."
Under Iskander khan and his successor Abdulla khan, Karmine retained his high political status. The relative stability provided by the government of the region contributed to the development of town planning here, which helped Karmine to become one of the main cities of the Bukhara khanate. A significant event in the spiritual life of the population of this town was the construction of Khonako. The object that has survived to the present day, as the dominant part of the architectural complex - the Kasym sheikh of the XVI century, is a unique monument of architecture, without which it is impossible to imagine ancient Karmana today.
In the sixties of the XVI century, the formation of the Bukhara khanate ended. In this story there is a significant role of Karmine, as one of the cities of the middle course of the Zarafshan river that received the special status. Culmination of this elevation began to transform Karmine into one of the main cities of the Bukhara khanate, which occurred already during the Mangit Abd al Ahad khan (1885-1910). With him, this town becomes the second most important city of the emirate.
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