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Karmana - a storehouse of history

Karmana is known in Uzbekistan as one of the oldest regions located at the intersection of the Ancient East and the West, in the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River. The age of this area can be judged by the unique traces found in Uchtuta and Sarmyshsai, found there more than 400 monuments of archeology, architecture and art. Some of them are of interest to historians around the world. For example, a workshop for making stone tools, indicating the existence of primitive people from the Middle Paleolithic era, and their settlement, remnants of the Neolithic mines found, and petroglyphs carved by hunters and herders back in the early Bronze Age, as well as medieval water mills.

Karmana is known not only for its historical values, but also deserves attention as the abode of scientists. In the IX-XII centuries here such sciences as logic, theology, hadithology(compiling wise sayings of scientists, prophets) flourished, dictionaries were compiled. Many scientists have made a great contribution to the development of both religious and secular sciences.

The main attraction of Karmana is an architectural ensemble on the southern outskirts of the city Kasym - Sheikh Complex. The complex owes its appearance to a real historical figure. It was a local native, a religious politician Kasym-sheikh Azizan Karminagi, popular in Central Asia (1500 / 1578-79), the head of the Sufi brotherhood Yassavia.

The architectural ensemble includes three main buildings: Khonako and two Khazirs (“fenced place”, “fence”) - one of the types of open-air burial buildings. The earliest construction is the khazir Kasim-sheikh. According to contemporaries, the construction was built by the Sufi himself and until his death could serve as a madrasah.

In the work of Abu Tahirkhuz Samarkandi "Samaria" some information is given about Mir Said Bakhrom. He enjoyed the well-deserved respect and influence of the people thanks to his knowledge, intelligence and ability to work miracles. The Mausoleum of Mir Said Bakhrom, located in the center of the city of Karmana, was erected in the X-XI centuries and is a monument of national significance. The structure was built of baked brick, in the form of a quadrangular shape with a single dome. The building was restored several times as a result of which the original appearance was lost.

30 km west of the town of Karman, near the village of Khazor, one of the oldest mosques of Maverannahr, the Deggaron Mosque, has been preserved. It was erected no later than the beginning of the XI century. On the left bank of the Zarafshan River, on the territory of a once flourishing small village. Villagers were engaged in the manufacture of high-quality boilers. It is noteworthy that one of the most famous representatives of the Sufi school, Hojagon Shaykh Mavlono, Orif Deggaroniy (1313-1376) was born and buried in this village. He is considered one of the mentors of the largest representative of the school, Hojagon Bohauddin Nakshband. The mosque was erected in mixed technology: floors, columns, and partly the foundation - of baked brick, walls of mud brick and pahsa blocks.

The arches, bearing the central dome, are decorated with original bricks and ganch, which form a trefoil in cross section. Small domes of spheroconical form over square compartments have a transitional level of cantilevered cellular sails. The mosque is restored. In the new, rebuilt building of the museum presents the exposure of objects found in this land.

One of the sheikhs who lived in Karmana in the XIV century and became like-minded of Mavlono Orif Deggaron and Khoja Bahauddin Nakshbandi, was Khoja Khusrav. As a famous scientist, one of the propagandists of the Nakshbandi tarikat, he fought against heresy and the khorofat (superstition). Some historical information and legends about the life, activities and supernatural miraculous power of Khoja Khusraw are given in the book “Bahouddin balogardon” by Abdullah Musin Muhammad Bokir ibn Muhammad Ali. Currently, the tomb of Khoja Khusrav has been repeatedly restored and turned into a comfortable memorial complex.

The years of independence of Uzbekistan became a time in which the historical heritage of the country was given due attention. And among the many monuments of antiquity, these structures, evidence of the dawn of Maverannahr. Admiring its beauty, the sights of Karmana today are of historical, spiritual value and testify to the great power of the creative art of the ancient architects who lived on this earth.

 

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